The hengeyokai (pronounced: /hɛngɛjoʊkaɪ/ hen-geh-yo-kigh) (also known as katanga in Malatra) were a race of intelligent natural shapechanging animals, able to adopt animal, human, and hybrid forms. They were incredibly varied, with many subraces based on different kinds of animals, and were found throughout Kara-Tur, living on the fringes of human lands.
In animal form, a hengeyokai was indiscernible from an ordinary animal of its kind, and only magic or careful observation of its intelligent behavior could tell that there was more than met the eye. The animal form could be no larger than 2–3 feet (0.6–0.9 meters) in length.
In "hybrid" or "bipedal" form, they stood upright on their hind legs or rear limbs; their front paws, fins, or wings transformed into fully functional hands; and their torso and head took a humanoid posture. They remained very animal-like, retaining fur or feathers, wings or a tail if they'd had one, and other distinctive features. They were as tall and as heavy as a regular local human, usually standing 5–6 feet (1.5–1.8 meters) or 4.8–5.5 feet (1.5–1.7 meters) tall and weighing 100–140 pounds (45.4–63.5 kilograms).
Finally, in human form, a hengeyokai entirely resembled a typical human, of the same height as their hybrid form. However, they usually had features reminiscent of their animal form, such as beady eyes and a long moustache for a rat or a long and pointy nose for a sparrow. The human form was similar to humans of the land in which they'd been born, but was on average smaller and slighter.
Despite their variety of appearances, every hengeyokai had one feature in common—they had three forms: their animal form (of which they had only one), a human form, and a bipedal hybrid form that shared features of both. Their shapeshifting power was similar to the shapechange spell. Their capacity was limited, however: at first, they could only change once or twice a day, but as they advanced in life, they could change more often. A hengeyokai who turned from human form to animal form might have to wait until the next day before they could turn back. They could not change at all if injuries taken in the human or hybrid forms were enough to kill the smaller animal form. It took some time (a full minute or several seconds) to change form, during which the hengeyokai could do naught else. Armor, clothes, and possessions did not change with them. It was a real, bodily change, not an illusion and no form could not be detected as such, though other forms of magic might identify them. After the Spellplague, hengeyokai could change as often as they liked and all equipment and clothing changed with them. The power was called "Nature's Mask".
They were natural shapechangers, not lycanthropes. Unlike lycanthropes, hengeyokai had no relationship with the moon, never changed forms unless they wanted to, were not especially vulnerable to silver, could not pass on their power through inflicted wounds, and did not heal when they changed shape, though they did frequently take on a superficial likeness to their animal when in human form.
Each form had several benefits and drawbacks for the hengeyokai, though they retained their personality, knowledge, skills, and abilities in all forms, even if they could not always make use of them. Furthermore, each subrace had distinct strengths, weaknesses, and features according to their animal form.
In general, in comparison to the average human, most hengeyokai were considered slightly less comely to other races. They were also either a little more intelligent, flighty and lacking will, or more agile and either wiser or more charismatic. They could also be more adept in deceit and have quicker reflexes with which to elude attack.
In animal form, the hengeyokai was completely indistinguishable from a natural, average animal of its kind and possessed all the same abilities, strengths, and weaknesses. They could fight with natural armaments like teeth or claws if they had them, be protected by a thick hide or shell, and could fly or swim if their animal form was capable of it. Of course, they could not use weapons, wear clothes or armor, or manipulate items, and they could not cast any spells they knew. The smaller animal form was much less durable than the human and hybrid forms; injuries taken in those forms were twice as severe in this form. After the Spellplague, the animal form was as robust as the other forms and kept and gained the benefits of items worn, but could not necessarily use them without hands.
In this form, their ability to communicate was limited. As well as being able to speak the language of hengeyokai, they had the ability to communicate with regular animals, but this was understandably rather rudimentary, depending on the other animal's intelligence. They could not speak any other language, but could understand it if they heard it and knew it. It was once reported that they could communicate with any animal, but later it was only animals of their own kind or closely related. The animal was not compelled to obey or even be friendly.
In hybrid or bipedal form, the hengeyokai was an animalistic humanoid, and this was very obvious. With their new hands and body, they could use weapons and manipulate items, wear clothes and armor, cast spells, and were fully durable. However, they could no longer move as they once did or use any feature of their animal form: a carp hengeyokai could no longer swim like a fish and a sparrow hengeyokai could no longer fly like a bird, and they lost any natural armaments or defenses. They walked or ran as fast as a human. A hengeyokai's bipedal form gained some of the abilities and/or attributes of its animal form, such as a thicker hide or the ability to fly. They could wear light or medium armors, but not heavy armors. They often also gained some physical enhancement according to their type, if they didn't possess it in all three forms.
In human form, the hengeyokai looked like a completely ordinary human, apart from some distinctive feature reminiscent of the animal. They could pass as a human, walked or ran as fast as a human, could use weapons and manipulate items, wear clothes and armor, cast spells, and were fully durable. Of course, they could also no longer move like an animal or use any feature of their animal form. This form was unique; it could not be used to disguise oneself as another person.
They were descended from humans and shapeshifting animal spirits originating from the Feywild. It was reported in Shou Lung, by no less an authority than the Dragon Lord Mei Lung Cheng Shan, that hengeyokai were the product of rare unions of love between nature spirits and mortal humans, as were spirit folk. It was believed they combined elements of the material world and the spirit world.
Hengeyokai usually mated once or twice in their long lifetimes. Their romances were passionate but short-lived, usually only lasting long enough for the young to be able to look after themselves, which was just a few months. The couples generally separately amiably and stayed friendly throughout their lives. Parents sometimes stayed near the young for a few years to aid them, particularly if local hunters threatened them.
Infrequently, hengeyokai might mate with animals while in animal form, in which case the offspring were always hengeyokai; or with humans or spirit folk while in human form, in which case the offspring were of the mother's race. Human children of hengeyokai were known for their agility, beauty, and longevity, possessing a strong affinity for animals and regularly becoming druids or rangers or the like.
Hengeyokai had a peculiar lifecycle. For their first 100 years of life, they lived only in animal form, especially intelligent and long-lived, but little different from any other animal of their kind and unable to change forms. After this, they entered adolescence and could take their hybrid and human forms, but their memories of their animal life became vague. They were quite long-lived—frequently living past the age of two hundred. Previously, it was reported they had a more ordinary lifecycle, achieving adulthood at around 40 years of age and reaching middle age at 100 years, before being considered elderly at 150 and venerable at 200, and living up to 500 years.
A hengeyokai's diet was broadly the same as that of a human, but with a preference for foods their animal forms consumed. For example, a sparrow hengeyokai favored grains and seeds, while a cat hengeyokai was a heavy meat-eater.
Hengeyokai were by-and-large a reclusive and secretive race who preferred to live alone or in very small communities. Understanding that they were unlike humans, hengeyokai usually made no attempt to fit into their society or remain among them for very long. Most avoided contact with other sentient races, with the exception of the spirit folk. Nevertheless, while hengeyokai were wary of strangers, those who showed them true kindness were rewarded with close and long-lasting friendship.
Rather, being descendants of spirits, they believed they were closer to the spirit world and had more affinity for spirit folk when they encountered one another. The feeling was mutual and the two got on well. However, they did not venerate the spirits as humans did, instead viewing themselves as equals. They rarely even venerated ancestor spirits. Instead, hengeyokai shamans engaged the power of spirits via partnership, not worship. Similarly, they lacked religion, but might follow schools of philosophy much as monks did. They favored faiths and philosophies that were personal and not strict, like shamanism, the Way in Shou Lung and T'u Lung, the Eight Million Gods in Wa and Kozakura, and the faith of Chauntea in Wa, whom they saw as an incredibly powerful nature spirit who was nevertheless kindly and easygoing. They believed what they liked, worshiped however they liked, rarely followed doctrine, and ignored any suggestion of heresy. Innately magical, hengeyokai could easily learn and access and wield arcane magic. They saw no shame in using magic such as shadow magic, even finding appeal in its power to trick and deceive. They treated the forces of the Shadowfell like other spirits. However, they declined to make any pacts with beings they might have to acknowledge as superior.
Wild at heart, hengeyokai broadly tended toward chaotic and unpredictable behavior and were firmly independently minded. They valued both their own freedom and the freedom of others. They were always on the move to avoid being pinned down, even if staying within the same region. They avoided making attachments, for these could bind them as surely as any bonds. The greatest insult one could give a hengeyokai was trapping them in a cage. Seeing a slave or a trapped animal was abhorrent to them. In Wa, they associated freely with the lowly eta caste and in T'u Lung they freed slaves.
Hengeyokai of all breeds were naturally mischievous and enjoyed tricking people, regardless of what others, or their victims, thought of them for it. They did this to test others' reactions, to prepare for a hazardous circumstance, to hone their skills, and simply for their own amusement. They valued a prank played well, without witnesses or getting caught. Most were harmless and good-natured, if frustrating; pinching food, hiding or losing common items, and letting animals free were favorites. However, the pranks of evil hengeyokai could be cruel, damaging, and even deadly.
Hengeyokai frequently shared personality traits with their animal type. For example, hare hengeyokai were peaceful yet quick to take fright, while monkey hengeyokai were especially curious. Moreover, the different subraces tended toward good or evil behavior according to their animal forms and their own natures. They rarely had the discipline to be lawful, however. Humans tended to treat hengeyokai according to their animal types, shunning those they thought to be evil.
A hengeyokai would adopt different forms according to their needs and the situation. Their bipedal or hybrid form was their most natural and comfortable; they took this when with other hengeyokai or members of other races they trusted well. It gave them the best language capacity and eyesight and was useful for intimidating others. Their animal form was preferred for exploration, scouting, chasing, or fleeing, and not for combat, unless they had no better weapon or defenses in their human or bipedal/hybrid forms. The animal form was also an effective disguise but was at risk of being mistaken for a regular animal and being hunted or trapped. The human form was usually taken for passing among humans and often for battle, and the hengeyokai fought more viciously and tirelessly when in this guise. However, hengeyokai also often used their hybrid forms for battle, owing to its strengths.
Trying to make their lives as simple as they could, hengeyokai had few possessions; they carried only what they needed and had only a little money to get by on. They thought treasure just weighed them down. They traded anything they didn't want for practical things like food or weapons, or else donated it to those who had more need. This aided their itinerant lifestyle. As their armor and equipment did not always change forms with them, they often had to make arrangements to store or transport what possessions they did have when they changed shape.
Rather than come together in big communities or settle villages of their own kind, hengeyokai favored living alone or in small nomadic bands that were only loosely organized and not long-lasting. The average hengeyokai band numbered anywhere up to twenty individuals, rarely more than that, with males and females in equal ratio and equal status and ability. The leader was often a bushi of either sex. The more experienced or capable members usually departed to travel on their own. Different subraces of hengeyokai could easily live with one another, provided they had similar views and required similar environments. Single-subrace bands were rare but not unknown; they were properly known by the collective noun of their animal form, such as a flock of crane hengeyokai and a school of carp hengeyokai. In contrast to humans and other races, hengeyokai did not form clans, had no wish to possess lands or titles or positions of authority, did not worry overmuch about honor, lacked strong familial bonds, and never founded noble families or took over strongholds. They adopted the customs, language, and clothes of their human neighbors.
Adolescent hengeyokai, as they came of age, were inspired by curiosity, wanderlust, and desire for excitement, as well as an instinctive urge to find new territory (this time was jokingly called "the true Path of Enlightenment" by older hengeyokai). Most were happy to just explore the wilderness around their homes or the local human community, and get into juvenile shenanigans. Some might choose to live with humans for a time, adopting the guise of a human (often one who could be absent for days without drawing suspicion) or a tame local animal (but never a pet). Many felt an instinctive urge to stay and protect the people around them, preferring those who were compassionate to strangers, didn't mistreat animals, and put up with their mischief.
If content and approving of these people, good experienced hengeyokai sometimes took it upon themselves to watch over and protect a human settlement or just one family for many years, even for generations. They defended the area from outside threats and ensured the inhabitants were overall in good health. They lived on the fringes of the community until it was in danger, whereupon they quietly moved to deal with the threat, oftentimes completely unbeknownst to the settlement's residents. In thanks, the humans might give them offerings such as food, gifts, and services, which were enough to keep the hengeyokai living comfortably, though they never felt one with the community. The inhabitants might never even see their benefactor. Sages believed this behavior, in contrast to typical hengeyokai reclusiveness, was a product of the protective nature common to spirits. Meanwhile, evil hengeyokai instead preyed on such communities; more mischievous than malicious, they played cruel pranks on humans but could rob, trick, and even kill to get what they wanted. They earned fear and hatred and extorted offerings but were rarely ever satisfied.
There weren't many hengeyokai artisans, as they lacked patience, but a few nevertheless had incredibly skill and a natural talent for art. In particular, they were known for their colored woodcuts (nishiki-e), which were valued at up to 1,000 ch'ien by collectors of art, and for their guardian figures (kongi rikishi), which stood at the entrances to temples. With little interest in sedentary life as a commoner or expert, hengeyokai were often adventurers, their activities driven by simple curiosity or wanderlust and the chance to do good and play pranks, not to win wealth, fame, or power. Many were prompted to become adventurers when they were compelled to protect an adopted family or community against bandits, monsters, or evil spirits. However, most often it was fundamentally to discover themselves.
A hengeyokai could train as a bushi (a.k.a. "chanshi"), kensai, shukenja, or wu jen and they cross-trained easily as wu jen. Originally, they were never ninja or samurai, as these were exclusively human professions, but ninja clans saw the benefits of hengeyokai stealth skills and began admitting them into their ranks. Some even became assassins; cats, foxes, and rats were the most likely. Hengeyokai monks were also possible; far from lacking the self-discipline as was commonly believed, they enjoyed the solitary development of body and mind. Rather than train in monasteries and temples, they learned under hermit masters in the wilderness with few other students. Hengeyokai monks had a natural talent and a knack of improvising and mixing styles. Carps, cranes, dogs, hares, and monkeys were most likely to be monks. However, they did lack the dedication of time to become a wizard, preferring the volatile, raw, chaotic power of the sorcerer instead; cats, foxes, monkeys, and sparrows most often went this way. Hengeyokai fighters (such as bushi) were most often crabs, dogs, foxes, raccoon dogs, and rats, with a tough and ferocious martial style. Rangers were usually cats, cranes, foxes, hares, monkeys, raccoon dogs, rats, or sparrows, using their talents for stealth in scouting and spying. Hengeyokai made natural rogues, as sneaking, lying, and thieving came easily to them. While rogues were often cats and rats operating as burglars and raccoon dogs as brutish brigands, any subrace could be a rogue, from con artists to yakuza thugs, and many others learned the skills. Veteran hengeyokai of any stripe might dedicate themselves as shapeshifters.
All subraces shared their own common language, called "Hengeyokai". They could speak it in any form. It used the alphabet of the common tongue. In addition, they had a supernatural power to communicate with animals of their own kind, dependent on which form they were in. They could learn and speak local human languages and trade languages like Common or Trade Tongue, again dependent on their form. They might also learn the Giant and Goblin languages, as well as the language of spirits. They adopted personal names suiting local human cultures, but not clan names or family names.
In ancient Wa, the War of the Spirits after the death of Emperor Kochi saw the local hengeyokai, spirit folk, and korobokuru divided in their loyalties to humankind and the spirit world. The hengeyokai enjoyed the chaos and fought freely for both sides. The conflict divided the islands into feuding clans for centuries.
In Wa, the hengeyokai had long stood outside mainstream human society, and so enjoyed some freedoms. Many took up worship of Chauntea, ignoring the shogunate's ban on the foreign goddess. After the Juzimura Rebellion was crushed in 1337 DR (Wa Year 1755) and the faith's suppression, most of these hengeyokai left Wa and found their way to Faerûn, where they worshiped Chauntea however they liked, even if it irritated the more orthodox churches. Later, from around 1355 DR (Wa Year 1773), Shogun Matasuuri Nagahide began making edicts aimed at controlling the local hengeyokai population, removing their freedoms. The hengeyokai were naturally unhappy, but as they'd never been organized or social, they had no good means to protest the edicts. Some formed bandit gangs and secret societies, like the Hengeyokai Society.
When Shou Lung was invaded by the Tuigan Horde in 1359 DR (Shou Year 2609) and later by the forces of Tan Chin in 1360 DR (Shou Year 2610), some hengeyokai refugees fled west into the Hordelands and Faerûn. In more peaceful times, a few curious itinerant hengeyokai followed the merchant caravans along the Spice Road and Golden Way. However, after the Spellplague of 1385 DR (Shou Year 2635) and the ensuing turmoil, many more traveled west in the mistaken belief that Faerûn would be relatively more peaceful (it was not). Many rat hengeyokai left the Tenmei province of Kozakura after a costly war with local korobokuru. During the civil war in Kozakura, most of the hengeyokai population remained staunchly neutral, though some acted in defense of innocents caught between the warring factions.
Shortly after the Spellplague of 1385 DR, a section of the Feywild moved closer to the Sheng Ti province of Shou Lung, which empowered the spirit folk and hengeyokai there. Despite this, the two races stayed loyal to Emperor Kai Tsao Shou Chin (whose maternal great-grandfather was a Sheng Ti hengeyokai) and assisted him in restoring order. In gratitude, in 1396 DR (Shou Year 2646), he decreed that hengeyokai and spirit folk in Sheng Ti be allowed to enter the Mandarinate, which had previously only been permitted to humans. Few actually took the opportunity but it remained nonetheless, despite racist tongs who actively opposed the move and worked against prominent hengeyokai. Regardless, Sheng Ti become known as a haven for hengeyokai. When gargantuas overran Wa, hengeyokai came to Sheng Ti, though they had difficulties assimilating and many went further west, to the Hordelands and Faerûn.
Though they could be found pretty much anywhere in Kara-Tur, primarily the Ama Basin, in the Sheng Ti province in Shou Lung, and in Kozakura, hengeyokai typically lived on the fringes of human civilization and wilderness areas, close to both human settlements and to unsettled environments. These regions let them take human form and go among others and escape into the wilds and be alone whenever they wanted. They were often mobile, uprooting and leaving when civilization expanded into their old home. They had no realms of their own, nor even communities or villages. Their houses were simple and temporary, even crude, but sturdy constructions of wood and stone. However, hengeyokai of Miyama Province in Kozakura might build grand homes like those of noblemen and samurai, but hidden far into the woods. They prepared what defenses they might against intruders, and posed as humans to treat visitors with hospitality or wickedness, according to their nature. However, in rougher areas, they dwelled in simple huts.
The largest population in Kara-Tur was found in the Ama Basin of the Northern Wastes. Good and evil hengeyokai often served as protectors and sometimes as menaces of the local human clans, who believed them to be potent nature spirits and respected them greatly, though not without a little fear or hate. This alliance was a useful one against such threats as local oni and hobgoblins. The majority of hengeyokai users of primal magic, like barbarians, druids, rangers, and seekers, were found here, and after the Spellplague, many hengeyokai displayed spellscars in hybrid and human forms, though they were exceedingly rare elsewhere in Kara-Tur. This could not be explained by sages and wu jen, but added to the respect and dread accorded to the hengeyokai by their tribal neighbors.
In Shou Lung, the Sheng Ti province was home to a large number of hengeyokai by the mid–14th century DR, with many clans found there. They were so populous and accepted here that they could roam freely in the cities, even in hybrid forms and even those viewed with distrust, unlike anywhere else in the empire. In fact, some whispered the Sheng humans gained their small and elegant stature from contact with the hengeyokai and spirit folk. By the late 15th century DR, Kara-Turan hengeyokai saw Sheng Ti as a sanctuary and many migrated there. The Men of the Woods, a mixed band of humans, hengeyokai, spirit folk, and korobokuru dwelled in the forest of Shen Hua in the Hungtse Valley in mid–14th century.
In Kozakura, hengeyokai dwelled in isolated enclaves across the islands, usually in remote valleys, forests, and mountains, like the dark wooded valleys of Maeshi Province. The most populous were the fox hengeyokai of northern Shinkoku, the monkey hengeyokai of southern Shinkoku, and the rat hengeyokai of Tenmei, though the rats mostly departed the area after a bloody feud with local korobokuru. After civil war in Kozakura after 1385 DR, the hengeyokai faded deeper into the wilderness or went to Shou Lung, but a few tried to protect ordinary folk from marauding bandits and warring clans.
After the post-Spellplague migration, in the Hordelands, hengeyokai settled in Yaimunnahar, around the Lake of Mists, and in the foothills of the Sunrise Mountains. They became guardians of the countless oases along the Golden Way, protecting caravans from brigands and raiding humanoids.
In Faerûn, the majority of hengeyokai settled along the Golden Way in the Great Dale, Rashemen, and Thesk, and as far west as Nathlan on the Dragon Coast. In fact, by 1479 DR, almost every Shou-town in Faerûn had a few hengeyokai living in or near it. Particularly in xenophobic Nathlan, they largely remained in human form and had to be careful not to be mistaken for evil lycanthropes, such as rat hengeyokai for wererats, though some cunning hengeyokai made use of the similarities. A rare few hengeyokai struck out away from familiar surroundings to live in Cormyr, the Dalelands, the Western Heartlands, and the North. In the early 1360s DR, hengeyokai mercenaries were known to serve in the Mindulgulph Mercenary Company and a cat hengeyokai was a member of the Agency adventuring company. By 1479 DR, a pride of cat hengeyokai had settled in the King's Forest in Cormyr, enjoying the kingdom's love of cats while protecting local humans from marauding creatures and other menaces.
- Carp hengeyokai
- Cat hengeyokai
- Crab hengeyokai
- Crane hengeyokai
- Dog hengeyokai
- Drake hengeyokai
- Fox hengeyokai
- Hare hengeyokai
- Monkey hengeyokai
- Raccoon dog hengeyokai
- Rat hengeyokai
- Sparrow hengeyokai
Other known kinds of hengeyokai included:
- Badger hengeyokai
- Crayfish hengeyokai
- Caiman hengeyokai
- Hedgehog hengeyokai
- Impala hengeyokai
- Mantis hengeyokai
- Ostrich hengeyokai
- Pangolin hengeyokai
- Snake hengeyokai
- Tiger hengeyokai
- Weasel hengeyokai
- Spider katanga: Spider katanga looked out only for other spider katanga, and viewed most other species merely as food. Thankfully, their numbers seemed restricted entirely to the Malatran Plateau, though occasionally, a Mother of a Thousand Young emerged from the populace and birthed a mass of new spider katanga to threaten the other races living on it.
Frog, lizard, and weasel hengeyokai, as well as larger types like dolphin, panda, and tiger hengeyokai were spoken of in legends, but never confirmed to exist, at least by humans.
- Nuska Ohm Wy, a monkey hengeyokai thief and trickster in T'u Lung
- Xax Chung, a hare hengeyokai and the hero of Koje
- Taichi, a monkey hengeyokai wu jen and advisor to the Funada clan of Nakamaru in Wa.
- Devuri, crayfish hengeyokai shukenja and priest of a temple in Kataburi in Malatra
- Wetuji, a cat hengeyokai kensai renowned even to humans in Kozakura
- Onoye, a monkey hengeyokai monk, founder of the Monkey Style martial art in Kozakura
- Aoi, a monkey hengeyokai student of Onoye who earned renown for protecting villages during Kozakura's civil war
The hengeyokai are named for the yōkai and henge of Japanese folklore, but as shapeshifting animals, they are likely based more on the obake. Obake are also called bakemono, but the bakemono is a very different creature in D&D. Both first appeared in Oriental Adventures for 1st-edition Dungeons & Dragons in 1987. However, a more recent inspiration might be the anthropomorphic animal martial-artist characters of the then-recently released Usagi Yojimbo and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles comics.
- Swords of the Daimyo
- Night of the Seven Swords
- Ochimo: The Spirit Warrior
- Blood of the Yakuza
- Mad Monkey vs the Dragon Claw
- Ronin Challenge
- Test of the Samurai
- Ninja Wars
- Dragon #8: "The Flowers of Flame"
- Dragon #33: "Mad Gyoji"
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.71 Rick Swan (July 1990). Monstrous Compendium Kara-Tur Appendix. (TSR, Inc.), p. Hengeyokai. ISBN 0-88038-851-X.
- ↑ Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 5–8.
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.50 3.51 3.52 3.53 3.54 3.55 3.56 3.57 3.58 3.59 3.60 3.61 3.62 3.63 James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 10–11, 12, 168. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (April 2004). “Oriental Adventures Update: Eastern Flavor”. In Matthew Sernett ed. Dragon #318 (Paizo Publishing, LLC), p. 34.
- ↑ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 5.49 5.50 Gary Gygax, David Cook, and François Marcela-Froideval (1985). Oriental Adventures. (TSR, Inc), pp. 11, 12–13. ISBN 0-8803-8099-3.
- ↑ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 6.28 6.29 6.30 6.31 6.32 6.33 6.34 6.35 6.36 6.37 6.38 6.39 6.40 6.41 6.42 6.43 Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 7, 8.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 250. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 1–2.
- ↑ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.37 Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), p. 2.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 70. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 45–46. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ Gary Gygax, David Cook, and François Marcela-Froideval (1985). Oriental Adventures. (TSR, Inc), p. 10. ISBN 0-8803-8099-3.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 26. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 9. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), p. 3.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 69. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 14. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 22. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 18. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 19. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 20. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ James Wyatt (October 2001). Oriental Adventures (3rd edition). (Wizards of the Coast), p. 58. ISBN 0-7869-2015-7.
- ↑ David "Zeb" Cook (1987). Blood of the Yakuza. (TSR, Inc), p. 4. ISBN 0-88038-401-8.
- ↑ David "Zeb" Cook (1986). Swords of the Daimyo. (TSR, Inc), p. 16. ISBN 0-88038-273-2.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 David "Zeb" Cook (1987). Blood of the Yakuza. (TSR, Inc), p. 26. ISBN 0-88038-401-8.
- ↑ Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume II). (TSR, Inc), p. 176. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ 27.00 27.01 27.02 27.03 27.04 27.05 27.06 27.07 27.08 27.09 27.10 27.11 27.12 27.13 27.14 Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 3–5.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), pp. 7, 32. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 90. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ David Cook (1986). Swords of the Daimyo (Province Book of Miyama). (TSR, Inc), pp. 13, 14. ISBN 0-88038-273-2.
- ↑ Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 11. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ David Cook (1986). Swords of the Daimyo (Province Book of Miyama). (TSR, Inc), p. 2. ISBN 0-88038-273-2.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume II). (TSR, Inc), p. 142. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ Jon Pickens and others (1986). Night of the Seven Swords. (TSR, Inc), p. 2. ISBN 0-88038-327-5.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume II). (TSR, Inc), p. 101. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ Tim Beach (1992). Gold & Glory. (TSR, Inc), p. 14. ISBN 1-56076-334-5.
- ↑ Tim Beach (1992). Gold & Glory. (TSR, Inc), p. 59. ISBN 1-56076-334-5.
- ↑ Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 57. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ Jon Pickens and others (1986). Night of the Seven Swords. (TSR, Inc), p. 12. ISBN 0-88038-327-5.
- ↑ Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 36. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ Gary Gygax, David Cook, and François Marcela-Froideval (1985). Oriental Adventures. (TSR, Inc), pp. 121, 122. ISBN 0-8803-8099-3.
- ↑ Rick Swan (July 1990). Monstrous Compendium Kara-Tur Appendix. (TSR, Inc.), pp. Goblin Rat, Hu Hsien. ISBN 0-88038-851-X.
- ↑ Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 61. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ Mike Pondsmith, Jay Batista, Rick Swan, John Nephew, Deborah Christian (1988). Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms (Volume II). (TSR, Inc), pp. 122, 124. ISBN 0-88038-608-8.
- ↑ Tim Eagon (October 2011). “Ecology of the Hengeyokai”. In Steve Winter ed. Dragon #404 (Wizards of the Coast), p. 2.
- ↑ David "Zeb" Cook (1987). Blood of the Yakuza (Encounter Construction Booklet). (TSR, Inc), pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-88038-401-8.