The Old Empires (also called the Old Kingdoms) was the collective term used by most people to describe the empires of Chessenta, Mulhorand, and Unther, due to their origins being traced back to thousands of years before the Time of Troubles.
- Scott Bennie (1990). Old Empires. (TSR, Inc). ISBN 0-8803-8821-8.
- Ed Greenwood, Sean K. Reynolds, Skip Williams, Rob Heinsoo (June 2001). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 3rd edition. (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 182–191. ISBN 0-7869-1836-5.
- Rand Sharpsword (2002-01-16). More Old Empires and Sembia!. Rand's Travelogue. Wizards of the Coast. Retrieved on 2010-10-31.